2.  Using a Third-Party DataSource

2.1. Managed and XA DataSources
2.2. Setting the DataSource at runtime
2.2.1. Using different DataSources for each EntityManager Benefits Limitations Error handling

You can use OpenJPA with any third-party javax.sql.DataSource . There are multiple ways of telling OpenJPA about a DataSource:

The features of OpenJPA's own DataSource can also be used with third-party implementations. OpenJPA layers on top of the third-party DataSource to provide the extra functionality. To configure these features use the openjpa.ConnectionFactoryProperties property described in the previous section.

Example 4.2.  Properties File for a Third-Party DataSource

<property name="openjpa.ConnectionDriverName" value="oracle.jdbc.pool.OracleDataSource"/>
<property name="openjpa.ConnectionProperties" 
    value="PortNumber=1521, ServerName=saturn, DatabaseName=solarsid, DriverType=thin"/>
<property name="openjpa.ConnectionFactoryProperties" value="QueryTimeout=5000"/>

You can also force the Apache Commons DBCP BasicDataSource to be used for connection pooling when provided on the classpath by substituting it as the ConnectionDriverName and setting ConnectionProperties=DriverClassName to the actual JDBC driver value -

<property name="openjpa.ConnectionDriverName" value="org.apache.commons.dbcp.BasicDataSource"/>
<property name="openjpa.ConnectionProperties" 
    value="DriverClassName=oracle.jdbc.pool.OracleDataSource, PortNumber=1521, ServerName=saturn, DatabaseName=solarsid, DriverType=thin, MaxIdle=0"/>
<property name="openjpa.ConnectionFactoryProperties" value="QueryTimeout=5000"/>

2.1.  Managed and XA DataSources

Certain application servers automatically enlist their DataSource s in global transactions. When this is the case, OpenJPA should not attempt to commit the underlying connection, leaving JDBC transaction completion to the application server. To notify OpenJPA that your third-party DataSource is managed by the application server, use the jta-data-source element of your persistence.xml file or set the openjpa.ConnectionFactoryMode property to managed.

Note that OpenJPA can only use managed DataSources when it is also integrating with the application server's managed transactions. Also note that all XA DataSources are enlisted, and you must set this property when using any XA DataSource.

When using a managed DataSource, you should also configure a second unmanaged DataSource that OpenJPA can use to perform tasks that are independent of the global transaction. The most common of these tasks is updating the sequence table OpenJPA uses to generate unique primary key values for your datastore identity objects. Configure the second DataSource using the non-jta-data-source persistence.xml element, or OpenJPA's various "2" connection properties, such as openjpa.ConnectionFactory2Name or openjpa.Connection2DriverName. These properties are outlined in Chapter 2, Configuration .

Example 4.3.  Managed DataSource Configuration

<!-- managed DataSource -->
    <!-- use OpenJPA's built-in DataSource for unmanaged connections -->
    <property name="openjpa.Connection2UserName" value="scott"/>
    <property name="openjpa.Connection2Password" value="tiger"/>
    <property name="openjpa.Connection2URL" value="jdbc:oracle:thin:@CROM:1521:OpenJPADB"/>
    <property name="openjpa.Connection2DriverName" value="oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver"/>

2.2. Setting the DataSource at runtime

As mentioned above, the JTA and Non-JTA DataSources may be passed in as configuration properties at EntityManagerFactory creation. Either the JPA standard properties ( javax.persistence.jtaDataSource, java.persistence.nonJtaDataSource) or their OpenJPA specific equivalents (openjpa.ConnectionFactoryName, openjpa.ConnectionFactory2Name) may be used. One use case for this function is to store production connection information in configuration files but override the value when testing.

Example 4.4.  Setting DataSource at Runtime

Map<Object,Object> props = new HashMap<Object,Object>();
props.put("javax.persistence.jtaDataSource", "jdbc/myDataSource");
props.put("javax.persistence.nonJtaDataSource", "jdbc/myNonJTADataSource");
emf = Persistence.createEntityManagerFactory("example", props);

2.2.1. Using different DataSources for each EntityManager

The JPA specification allows the DataSource (ConnectionFactory) to be specified on the EntityManagerFactory. OpenJPA extends this support and allows each EntityManager to override the DataSource from the EntityManagerFactory. It's expected that the EntityManagerFactory will also be configured with a valid JTA / Non-JTA DataSource. The DataSource configured on the EntityManagerFactory will be used to obtain a DBDictionary and (rarely) to gather some information about the database in use (e.g. version, JDBC driver version).

If the EntityManagerFactory is not configured with a valid DataSource there are a few additional caveats.

  • The openjpa.DBDictionary property must be used to ensure the correct DBDictionary is used.

  • OpenJPA will always attempt to obtain a DataSource from JNDI based on the configuration for the EntityManagerFactory. When a JNDI name is specified on the EntityManager this lookup happens slightly earlier than normal. If the lookup fails the JNDI name provided at EntityManager creation will be set into the EntityManagerFactory's configuration and used in subsequent attempts. Benefits

In effect this option allows a single set of entity definitions to be shared between multiple database instances or schemas within an instance. This can be highly beneficial when there are a large number of entity definitions (e.g. > 200), or a large number of databases / schemas in use. Limitations

  • The same database type and version must be used by each EntityManager. OpenJPA will use the same DBDictionary for each EntityManager and will make no attempt to alter SQL syntax between EntityManager instances.

  • It is the application's responsibility to ensure that the schema is identical on each database.

  • The application may not specify schema names for individual entities.

  • The DataSource (ConnectionFactory) name may only be specified when the EntityManager is created. The DataSource may not be switched while an EntityManager is in use.

  • The L2 cache (DataCache) should not be used if different DataSources are specified for each EntityManager

  • SynchronizeMappings should not be used with this feature.

  • Table and Sequence generators should not be used with this feature.

  • It is not required, but is recommended that the openjpa.DBDictionary property be specified when using this feature Error handling

If a JTA DataSource is not available when the EntityManager is created, an IllegalArgumentException will be thrown. The EntityManager will not fall back to the JTA DataSource defined in the configuration.

The same logic applies if a Non-JTA DataSource is not available when the EntityManager is created. OpenJPA will not fall back to the configured Non-JTA DataSource.